One project that I was super excited to work on towards the end of my tenure at Direct Dimensions was using strobing lights to generate super fine detail photogrammetry resolution. I can't go too much into the math or details (proprietary secrets! Even though it's all laid out in an academic paper...) but I can show a little of my experiments with rendering our results.
To protect the innocent, I am omitting the albedo, but this is an example of a generated local normal map
The specularity map generated.
Side by side comparison of the base mesh (right) and the vector displacement using Arnold (left).